It may look like abstract art, but it’s actually an image of the entire sky in the X-ray part of the spectrum.
This image was produced by the ROSAT survey. ROSAT is an X-ray observatory that, like its sister, the Hubble Space Telescope, is in orbit around Earth. The only way to observe celestial X-rays is from extremely high altitudes or in space, since Earth’s atmosphere absorbs them.
The curved blue stripe in the image is the disk of the Milky Way galaxy, and the bright white spots are supernova remnants.